However, Law 1 of 2016 would not enter into force until after the ratification of the final agreement in the referendum of 2 October 2016. He asked them to approve or reject the peace agreement in a referendum on 2 October. Extremely unequal land ownership is both the cause and consequence of the armed conflict in Colombia. In 1960, 0.4% of the owners owned 30% of all farmland. In 1997, the concentration of land ownership increased further: 0.35% of landowners owned 45% of all farmland, 86% owned only 13%. :66 In 2012, 1% of landowners (who own large lots of more than 200 hectares) owned 43% of the area and 13% of landowners (who own medium-sized land of more than 20 hectares) owned 39% of the area. 79% of the owners had land of less than 10 hectares (in the form of microfundio and minifundio), which represented only 11% of private agricultural land.  The 2014 agricultural census showed that 0.4% of agricultural production units (over 500 hectares) occupy 77.6% of the country`s rural area, while 71% of agricultural production units (less than 5 hectares) occupy only 2% of the rural area.  In larger areas (more than 1000 hectares), on average, only 28% of the area is used for agricultural purposes, with the remainder covered with natural vegetation, confirming general accusations that the land is not saturated.  The 2014 census also showed that, since 1960, the fragmentation of small farms has increased – production units of less than 5 hectares have increased by 63% of the total number of these units – while the weight of large farms (over 500 hectares) has increased from 40% to 77.6% over the entire rural area.  Unequal land distribution has increased since 2000, as measured by the Gini coefficient for land ownership – 0.885 in 2009, up from 0.877 in 2000.
:125 Colombia is one of the most unequal countries in Latin America and the world. [Citation required] So when the government and the largest rebel group, the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia, known as the FARC, reached a peace agreement in September 2016, after years of negotiations, much of the world applauded. Juan Manuel Santos, then Colombian president, was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The Commission`s mission would be to clarify practices that represent serious human rights, collective responsibilities in these practices, the social and human impact of the conflict on society and different groups, the impact of the conflict on politics and democracy, the historical context of the conflict, with its multiple causes, and the factors and conditions that contributed to the survival of the conflict. To that end, the Commission would study all of the above, hold public hearings, present a final report, disseminate its work, ensure the integration of the gender dimension throughout its work and be accountable on a regular basis.  The government and the FARC are committed to help clarifying the truth and acknowledging their respective responsibilities before the Commission.  Land reform has been one of the main causes of the FARC since the founding of the guerrillas in 1964.